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CHARTERING AND CHARTER-PARTIES                 49

hire when by reason of a breakdown the vessel ceases to
operate. If by breakdown of machinery the vessel ceases
to operate, the charterer is entitled to some return for lost
time. The stipulation is usual for a period in excess of
twenty-four hours, after which time ceases to count, and
the charterer is credited with such time lost by the break-
down in his settlement for hire of the vessel.

3.  Return of overpaid hire if vessel is lost. Essentially a
time-charter clause, stating that, should the vessel be lost,
hire shall cease to be chargeable, and any amount overpaid
shall be returned.

4.  Charterer's right to complain of master and chief en-
gineer. This clause gives the right to the charterer of making
any complaint to owners regarding these officers. They are
left on board the steamer by the owners, as then- repre-
sentatives, and also to be in "possession" should owners
wish to exercise a lien for hire money not paid. The char-
terer, not being the actual employee of these persons, must
be given some power of authority, and such power is
contained in this clause.

Some time charter-parties are fixed allowing the charterer
to appoint the whole of the ship's personnel, including
master and chief engineer. When this is the case, the
charter is known as a demise charter* and is for all practical
purposes a transfer of ownership of the vessel for the period
of the charter, the owner having no control whatsoever over
his vessel from the time she is hired until she is returned.j
This charter is often known as a "Iceboat" charter^ '

5.  Charterer's obligation to provide master with full sailing
directions. The master, in order to carry out instructions,
must have full directions, and failure on the part of the
charterer to supply these may entail delay and lost time.

The third list of clauses which are clauses a voyage
charter may contain areó

i. Limitation of liability clause. Known widely as the
cesser clause, and stipulates that "Charterers* liability shall
cease on the loading of cargo, and qualified payment of
freight, dead freight, and demurrage." When the charterer